Wednesday, August 26, 2020

How Religions Affect Countries Socially and Politically Essay

How Religions Affect Countries Socially and Politically - Essay Example it can possibly be made sense of that religion to be sure has a far more noteworthy effect on the way in which the country’s political and social condition comes to fruition. John J. Macionis characterized religion as A social foundation including convictions and practices dependent on an origination of the holy. Therefore, it will undoubtedly affect the way where the leaders of a nation attempt to shape their political way of thinking, since that what they consider to be useful for their nation and the individuals. In the event that we investigate, we can make sense of various engagements occurring among gatherings, social orders and nations. Religion is by all accounts one of the variables molding the feelings and the practices of the individuals associated with the contentions. No religion shows scorn or bigotry towards others in the general public, yet the way where the strict lessons are depicted frequently impacts the social conduct. In the event that we investigate the Middle East clash, we locate a profound separation among the devotees of the two religions. The Middle East clash among Israel and its neighbors, on the lines of strict convictions, returns to very nearly a century, yet strife has raised more during the last more than 60 years. The political range in both the regions has been coming out with approaches equivalent with their expressed positions this while. Notwithstanding endeavors from various corners, the contention is not even close to any arrangement even at this point. Presently, fear mongering, the feared word, additionally discovers a portion of its strings connected to this contention. However, the net result of such clash has not supported a specific nation or region. Individuals from both the sides have endured enormously and the formative issues have been hit antagonistically yet the incongruity is, even the more up to date age on both the sides doesn't appear to have a state in settling the contention genially. On the off chance that we investigate a nation like Pakistan, we find that this Islamic country has been in the news as of late, for all an inappropriate reasons. The nation has been feeling the squeeze from the Islamic ministers for a long while now. In spite of the fact that the current system came into power after an equitable procedure of races during the ongoing past, however it likewise should be recalled that Pakistan has had brushes with majority rules system in the past too. Previously, there have various Military overthrows, assuming control over the reins of intensity in the nation. In spite of best endeavors from a portion of the leaders of Pakistan, the strict bodies have consistently attempted to direct terms for confining strategies, and it's implied that on numerous events such strict bodies have had the option to have a high ground. The ongoing episodes in Swat valley of Pakistan have raised numerous worries about the eventual fate of fair set up in the nation. So as to reestablish harmony in the district, the Pakistani government chose to hand over this valley, otherwise called 'Switzerland of Pakistan' to a portion of the strict heads on fifteenth of February2. From that day ahead Islamic laws have come into power in the area, which suggests numerous noteworthy takeoffs from the recent majority rule standards. It is very clear that the religion, being polished by larger part of the individuals in Pakistan had the high ground in choosing about the eventual fate of the Swat valley. America is viewed as a symbol of majority rules system everywhere throughout the world. Individuals from numerous beliefs from around the globe have made this nation as their home. The strategies and standards of the administration give full regard to all religions. Yet, in the event that we are to call attention to the religion getting a charge out of the best support, we'll arrive at the resolution that it is to be sure the Christianity. During the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Art Gallery Project essays

Craftsmanship Gallery Project expositions For the Arts gathering, we will introduce a craftsman (or class) for about 30minutes to present the foundation and impacts just as methods utilized by a specific craftsman. The rest of great importance will be given to every understudy making their own portrayal of what we introduced. For instance, every understudy will make their own Van Gogh on the first of November. We will spare the entirety of their fine art all through the a month and a half. After the program has finished, we will have a type of workmanship display gathering. The time/area is still open to question since we might have the option to utilize the caf that Kristen works at. In the event that have the display at the caf, we are going to welcome the guardians and family and conceivably even sell their work of art. If not, we will most likely have it the next Monday after the program finishes during the after-school program hours. We are anticipating having juice and extravagant hors eats up to make a genuine workman ship exhibition feel.For the Arts gathering, we will introduce a craftsman (or sort) for about 30minutes to present the foundation and impacts just as methods utilized by a specific craftsman. The rest of great importance will be committed to every understudy making their own portrayal of what we introduced. For instance, every understudy will make their own Van Gogh on the first of November. We will spare the entirety of their work of art all through the a month and a half. After the program has finished, we will have a type of workmanship display gathering. The time/area is still not yet decided in light of the fact that we might have the option to utilize the caf that Kristen works at. In the event that have the display at the caf, we are going to welcome the guardians and family and potentially even sell their craftsmanship. If not, we will most likely have it the next Monday after the program finishes during the after-school program hours. We are anticipating having juice and e xtravagant hors eats up to make a genuine craftsmanship display feel. ... <!

Monday, August 17, 2020

Introducing the MeisterTask for Outlook Add-in - Focus

Introducing the MeisterTask for Outlook Add-in - Focus If theres one thing most people in todays business world can agree on, its that getting to inbox zero every day is becoming almost impossible. Unfortunately, the good old CMD+A and DELETE isnt an option for most of us  because, you know, some of those emails contain information thats actually important, and to-dos  that really need to get done. To help you extract these action items from your inbox and get them into your task management system as efficiently as possible, were proudly introducing a new integration today: the MeisterTask for Outlook add-in! The MeisterTask for Outlook add-in  turns your emails into tasks and automatically inserts them in the project and section of your choice. The emails subject line will be used as the task name, and the emails content will turn into the task description. However, you can easily edit both inside the add-in (before the export) as well as in MeisterTask (after the export). Take a look at this short video to see the add-in in action: The MeisterTask for Outlook add-in is free and works in Outlook 2013 or later, Outlook 2016 for Mac, as well as Outlook on the Web. How to Install the MeisterTask for Outlook Add-in on the Web Heres a quick step-by-step guide to show you how to install the MeisterTask add-in in your online Outlook account: Step 1: Go to and login with your email address and password. Step 2: Open the Settings Menu and select Manage Integrations. Step 3:  Use the search field to look for MeisterTask. Once the MeisterTask add-in appears in the list, use the switch on the right to turn the integration on. Follow the steps to connect your Outlook account with your MeisterTask account. Step 4: To open the MeisterTask add-in and turn  an email into a task, select the email in question and then click on the small MeisterTask button that sits between the subject line and content (next to the Reply all button). Step 5: Select a  project and section for the task youre about to create. Adjust the task name and description if needed, then click on Create Task. Step 6 (Optional): Click on View in MeisterTask  to open the newly created task and add additional information to it, such as assignee, due date, tags, watchers and more. MeisterTask will open in a new browser tab. Thats it! We hope the MeisterTask for Outlook add-in will help you manage tasks arising from your emails more efficiently, and ensure that important to-dos dont get lost between promotions, social media notifications and those funny PowerPoint presentations that your aunt keeps sending you (RE: RE: FWD: FWD: Hilarious_cat_fails.pptx). Get MeisterTask for Outlook PS: If youre using an email client other than Outlook, be sure to check out our article on how to forward emails to specific sections in your MeisterTask projects, and insert them as tasks. PPS: If you enjoy using MeisterTask for Outlook, please take a second to rate it in the Office Store  and let us know how you get on with it!

Sunday, May 24, 2020

How Many Tragedies Did William Shakespeare Write

Widely deemed as the best writer of all time, William Shakespeare is known as much for his  tragedies  as he is for his comedies, but can you name his top three? This overview of Shakespeares most heartbreaking works not only lists his tragedies but also  explains which of these works are considered his best and why.   A List of Shakespeares Tragedies A prolific writer, Shakespeare wrote 10 tragedies in total. They include the following, most of which youve likely heard of, even if you havent had the opportunity to read them or see these dramas performed.   Antony and CleopatraIn this play, Mark Antony, one of three rulers of the Roman Empire, is in Egypt enjoying a love affair with the enchanting Queen Cleopatra. Before long, however, he learns that his wife has died and a rival is threatening to usurp power from the triumvirate. Mark Antony decides to return to Rome.CoriolanusThis drama chronicles Martius, whose heroic deeds help the Roman Empire seize the Italian city Corioles. For his impressive efforts, he receives the name Coriolanus.Hamlet This tragedy follows Prince Hamlet, who is not only grieving his fathers death but is furious to learn that his mother has married his fathers brother shortly afterwards.Julius CaesarJulius Caesar arrives back home after besting the sons of Pompey the Great in battle. The Roman people celebrate him upon his return, but the powers-that-be fear that his popularity will result in him having absolute power over Rome, so they plot against him.King LearThe ageing King Lear is faced with giving up the throne and having his three daughters rule over his kingdom in ancient Britain.MacbethA Scottish general thirsts for power after three witches tell him that he will one day be king of Scotland. This leads Macbeth to murder King Duncan and assume power, but he is consumed with worry over  his misdeeds.OthelloIn this tragedy, the villain Iago schemes  with Roderigo against Othello, the Moor. Roderigo desires Othellos wife, Desdemona, while Iago seeks to drive Othello mad with jealousy by suggesting that Desdemona has been unfaithful, even though she has not.Romeo and JulietBad blood between the Montagues and Capulets wreak havoc upon the city of Verona and lead to tragedy for the young couple Romeo and Juliet, each a member of the feuding families.Timon of AthensA wealthy Athenian, Timon gives away all of his money to friends and hardship cases. This leads to his demise.Titus AndronicusPerhaps the bloodiest of Shakespeares plays, this drama unfolds as the two sons of a recently d eparted Roman Emperor fight about who should succeed him. The people decide that Titus Andronicus should be their new ruler, but he has other plans. Unfortunately, they make him a target of vengeance, Why Hamlet Stands Out Shakespeares tragedies are among his most famous and well-read plays, but of these,  he is probably best known for  Macbeth,  Romeo and Juliet  and Hamlet. In fact, critics widely agree that Hamlet  is  the  best play ever written.  Ã‚  What makes Hamlet so tragic?  For one, Shakespeare reportedly was inspired to write the play after the death of his only son, Hamnet, at age 11, on Aug. 11, 1596. Hamnet likely died of bubonic plague.   While Shakespeare wrote comedies immediately following his sons death, a few years later he would write a number of tragedies. Perhaps in the few years that followed the boys death, he had time to truly process the depth of his grief and pour them into his masterful dramas.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Physics Of The Cloud - 1445 Words

The life (and, sometimes, death) cycle of a star begins when gravity triumphs over heat. This results in a cloud, composed of gasses and minerals, losing balance, and beginning to contract. Balance for the cloud is not restored, until several radical changes have been experienced by the cloud, and have, subsequently, altered the cloud. Stars start their early stages in the form of the above-aforementioned, as what is known as an interstellar cloud. Following the creation of this cloud, the star then passes through seven basic evolutionary stages. Characteristics of these seven stages are various centralised temperatures - including those on the surface - densities, and sizes, of the pre-star object. The process begins with a cold, dark,†¦show more content†¦However, if a star is born, these clouds can become unstable, and can even collapse under their own gravity resulting in them breaking up into much smaller pieces of their original forms. Evidence suggests that this process is triggered as the result of an external event - a shock wave of nearby stellar explosions [supernova] or, perhaps, the pressure wave ripple of another cloud as it forms a star and ionises its own surroundings. An additional theory suggests that a magnetic field is responsible for the cloud retaining its form and then fading away as its charged particles drift off into space, thus the leftover gasses are unable to support the cloud s remaining weight. Over a few million years, the collapsing process is thought to produce several smaller clouds which have broken off from the parent cloud after it has become unstable and which, in turn, copy the parent by collapsing, breaking apart, and so on. All of these theories, however different, result in the same conclusion: the formation of several different types of stars, which a single interstellar cloud can then produce. Stage 2 of a star s formation is the Cloud Fragment stage. This stage occurs in one of the aforementioned fragments of cloud which have broken off from the parent cloud. Cloud fragments which might then become stars will contain between one and two Sols of material [Sols are a unit of measurement] and will appear as

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Hasbro in Brazil Free Essays

With 41. 9% of Hasbro sales revenue being generated internationally, it is essential that they work to maintain positive relationships with countries throughout the world. The international arena is becoming increasingly important to their revenues. We will write a custom essay sample on Hasbro in Brazil or any similar topic only for you Order Now Brazil is one of several international markets that Hasbro has expanded into over the last 5 – 10 years. Not only are they shipping products to Brazil, but in around 2007 they also opened an office in Brazil. Even with this being the case, Brazil has taken governmental measures to promote and strengthen the national traditional toys and games industry and stimulate further local production. In 2010, Brazil approved the reduction of import taxes from 20% to 2% on components to produce traditional toys and games such as electronic mechanisms and later the government increased import taxes on manufactured products from 20% to 35% to inhibit further imports, mainly from China (Toys and Games in Brazil, 2011). In a bid to remain competitive and increase market share, seven large domestic companies considered the possibility of merging to form the largest toys and game manufacturer in Brazil. While the project is still under consideration despite the challenges involved merging seven companies, three other companies, Baby Brink, Rosita and Acalanto, merged in April 2010 to create the group BBRA† (Toys and Games in Brazil, 2011). With measures such as these in place, it causes a disfavor t o companies such as Hasbro. It requires them has to work twice as hard to gain acceptance in a country that is promoting growth for their national companies. Hasbro identified one opportunity for the locals of Brazil to view them in a light other than one of an â€Å"outsider. † In 2011, Hasbro partnered with Operation Smile Create Smiles to provide free medical treatment and toys and games for children born with cleft palate. â€Å"The medical mission in Brazil was made possible because of Hasbro. Our patients and families in Brazil are incredibly warm and vibrant, and yet the laughter and smiles of these children were hidden behind their clefts. Today, their futures are full of hope and opportunity, and they will always remember that Hasbro helped make that happen†, said Dr. Bill Magee, Co-Founder and Executive Chairman of Operation Smile (Kraft, Jessica, 2011). By taking steps to increase their social responsibility in Brazil, Hasbro is promoting themselves in a way that will allow them to gain an increased acceptance rating and hopefully, not only make 100 children’s smiles brighter but also their bottom line. How to cite Hasbro in Brazil, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Cost Analysis of Coca Cola free essay sample

History The origin of PepsiCo Inc. began with its namesake beverage, Pepsi-Cola, invented by a pharmacist named Caleb Bradham in 1898 in New Bern, North Carolina. With its main ingredients pepsin and kola nuts, Pepsi-Cola offered a refreshing drink that was healthy and capable of aiding in digestion brought about by the pepsin enzyme found in the soda. Well received by the public, Pepsi Cola was soon patented in 1902 and was readily available throughout 24 states in America by 1910. In 1935, the Pepsi-Cola Company founded by Caleb Bradham went bankrupt and was bought out by Charles Guth. During this time another company by the name of Frito-Lay started building a business relationship with Pepsi-Cola in hopes to diversify Pepsi-Cola’s products. By 1945, the two companies began working together and in 1965, PepsiCo Inc. was formed with the merger of the two companies: Pepsi-Cola and Frito-Lay. Headquartered in Purchase, New York, United States, PepsiCo Inc. pecializes in the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of grain-based snacks and carbonated beverages. It is a global company that offers its products in North America, South America, Europe, Middle East, Asia and Africa. Over the past years, PepsiCo Inc. has grown to be distributed throughout 200 countries around the globe and has since expanded from its namesake product, Pepsi, to a wide range of food and beverage brands, acquiring Tropicana in 1998, and a merger with Quaker Oats in 2001 – adding Gatorade as its products. Most of PepsiCos market share is derived from the Americas with Asia and Europe offering 13% and 16% market share, respectively. Today, PepsiCo Inc. s products offered include packaged goods and beverages with its product mix consisting of 52% beverage and 48% foods. Beverages include 76 flavors of Pepsi-Cola, varieties of Tropicana, and Gatorade. Package foods include a Doritos, Ruffles, Cheetos, Lays, Tostitos, Cracker Jacks, etc. (Pepsi beverage brand holding a significant market offering). Over the past 5 decades, PepsiCo Inc. s market share has grown steadily to become and remain the top major snacks and beverage provider worldwide. From its incorporation, the company has grown itself by acquiring and divesting many large businesses including but not short of Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, KFC, and Wilson Sporting Goods. Its long standing battle between the Coca-Cola Company has always fueled the decisions the macro-snack company has made over the course of its business and in 2005, Peps iCo Inc. had surpassed the Coca-Cola Company in net revenues. Its most recent net revenues reported were $43. billion globally (2011) and it remains the largest food/beverage business in North America and second largest food and beverage business in the world. Looking to 2012, Indra K. Nooyi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of PepsiCo Inc. , stated, The greatest challenge in the business [PepsiCo Inc. ] today is to renew a successful company positioning it for long-term growth and profitability while performing in the current marketplace. Within the past several years, PepsiCo. Inc. has been partnering with healthy-choice snacks to expand their portfolio with little focus on their core capability, Pepsi Cola beverage. With a vigorous 5 year project started in 2007 and implemented in the beginning of 2012, the Pepsi Cola will be focused on marketing its core product, the Pepsi Cola beverage, during 2012 and the years to come by increasing advertising expenditure to $500-600 million in 2012 and efficiently managing their revenues and costs in the macro-snack business. As required, PepsiCo Inc. publicly discloses its financial data to the SEC (Security and Exchange Commission) via the EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval) system. This system automates the filing process for PepsiCo and allows present and future investors to contemplate on its financial position. Investors can look up PepsiCo by their Ticker Symbol, PEP, and view all sorts of disclosed information; from the Quarterly Report (Q-10), to the Annual Report (K-10), it is all there. PepsiCo also publishes its filing on their official website, under the Investor tab. Data and Analysis Based on PepsiCo’s 2011 Annual Report, â€Å"Unfavorable economic conditions may have an adverse impact on our business results or financial conditions. In times of higher interest rates, consumers are limited with disposable income which resulted in spending cut. In addition with high interest rates, banks are less likely to provide lenders money due to the need for capital. The tighter lending standards mean that consumers will cut back on spending, and in turn, directly affects macro-snack and beverage consumption and businesses’, such as PepsiCo Inc. , sales and profits. Using the simplest form of quantitative analysis to â€Å"fit† a line to data points, High-Low Method, observed values of unemployment rates, within the relevant range, at ts highs and lows are calculated on its affect of PepsiCo’s Net Revenue. Next we will use the simple linear regression to get a deeper understanding of the company’s financial data. With a simple regression analysis, the amount of change of the dependent variable (Net Revenue) is shown, within a relevant rage, with every unit of change of the independent variable (interest rate). In relation to Linear Regression Models, the Multiple Linear Regressions will allow us use two or more independent variables to project a dependent variabel (Net Revenue). Finally, we will look att the Time-Series Anlaysis of how the overall Net Revenue changes throughout the course of 2007-2011 for PepsiCo Inc. Below in detail are the four methods mentioned above used to froecast the Net Revenue for future periods. Forecasting Sales Revenue: High-Low Method The highest and lowest quarterly revenue for PepsiCo Inc. is $20158 and $7350, respectively. The relative quarterly interest rate at the highest and lowest net revenue is 4. 25% and 4. 84%. The equation derived from the High-Low Method is as follows: Quarterly Net Revenue = 112419. 02 – (21708. 7* Avg. Interest of Prev. Quarter) Therefore, in correlation to PepsiCo’s Risk Assessment, the lower the interest rate, the higher the net revenue. Forecasting Sales Revenue: Simple Linear Regression Under the simple linear regression analysis, the quarterly revenue equation is as follows: Quarterly Net Revenue = 63021. 36 – (11093. 40* Avg. Interest Rate of Prev. Quarter) The signifianc e of the equation intercepts is given by the P-value, in green above. Being less than . 05 (Y-intercept (. 000032) and Slope Intercept (. 0003)), the intercept calculated are significantly accurate. Regarding the goodness of fit of this model, the Coefficient of Determination (R2 of . 519 Quarterly and . 965* Annually), shows a moderately accurate prediciton of future outcomes using this regression model. The possibility of the R2 value being relatively weak can be due to lower Q1 revenues regardless of decreases in interest through time. The simpleregression model shows that as quarterly interest increases 1%, the revenue will drop by $11,093,400,00. Forecasting Sales Revenue: Multiple Linear Regression Under the multiple linear regression analysis, the annual revenue equation is as follows: Quarterly Net Revenue = 219345. 66 + (. 02*GDP)-(4583104*interest Rate) +(1473067* Infllation Rate) The signifiance of the equation intercepts is given by the P-value, in green above. Being less than . 05 for interest Rate and Y-intercept and more than . 05 significance for inflation and GDP, the tesst of significance based on the p-value is not substantial evidence Regarding the goodness of fit of this model, the Coefficient of Determination (R2 of . 999), shows a very strong correlation of the combination of these three independent variables in relation to Net Revenue. Forecasting Sales Revenue: Time-Series Analysis Another method to forecast sales revenue is with the Time-Series Analysis. This simple method projects future target based on past outcomes. As visible, the trend for PepsiCo is steadily increasing from year-to-year. Note that after the cyclical year, from Quarter 4 to Quarter 1, revenues drop back down; however, time have shown that Quarter 1 of the present year is still higher than that of the previous years. From 2007 to 2008, there was a 13% change in revenue for Quarter 1 alone. Likewise, from 2010 to 2011, a 27% change was shown. In the 2011 Annual Report, PepsiCo Inc has stated that commodity rates has been increasing which has in turn increased the cost of goods sold. In addition, their recent organization of quaker oats and partner companies have seen an increase in spending due to inefficiencies in their work force. Forecasting PepsiCo 2012 Q3 Net Revenue Looking forward, PepsiCo has been refocusing their campaign to sell their core product as well as issuing a major work-force cut in the beginning of 2012. If all goes smoothly, PepsiCo may be able to achieve their goal in Q3 of 2012. Using the simmple linear regression equation to forecast 2012 Q3 Net Revenue, PepsiCo Inc. Q3 goal for net revenue is $19,424 (in millions) Cost of Goods Sold and Selling and Administration Expense Under Simple Linear Regression model, the Proj. Cost of Goods Sold for Q3 2012 is as follows: 2012 Q3 COGS = 2590. 4+(. 3131*Q2 2012 Net Revenue) 2012 Q3 COGS = 2590. 4+(. 3131*18204. 3) Proj. 2012 Q3 COGS = $8290. 16 Under Simple Linear Regression model, the Proj. Sell and Admin. Expense for Q3 2012 is as follows: 2012 Q3 Samp;A Expense = 1021. 1+(. 3019*Q2 2012 Net Revenue) 012 Q3 Samp;A Expense = 1021. 1+(. 3019*18204. 3) Proj. 2012 Q3 Samp;A Expense = $6516. 98 Break-Even Point The Break-Even Point is calculated by the Fixed Cost/ Gross Margin. Since PepsiCo Inc. selling and administration expense is not greatly affected by volume, we use this as our fixed cost. Break-Even Point = Fixed Cost/Gross Margin %| Fixed Cost (Samp;A Expense)| 6516. 98| Gross Margin %| | 54. 46%| Breakeven Poi nt (in millions)| 11,966. 54| | | | 5. Z-Score| | | z-score = (break-even point mean of revenue) / (standard deviation of revenue)| Break even point:| 11,966. 5443| | ean of revenue:| 12,514. 9500| | Standard deviation:| 3595. 833854| | z sore:| -0. 152511426| | The z-score of -. 15 show that the results are very much in the 95% confidence level range. Statisical Analysis with Sales Revenue The table and graph below shows the frequency of PepsiCo falling within specific brackets involving quarterly Sales Revenue from 2007 to 2011. As shown, PepsiCo hit the $9,001-$11,000 and $11,001-$13,000 mark 5 times each, resulting in 50% of all 25 quarters’ earning to fall within those markers. Their highest sales, $20,158, only hit the $19,001-$21,000 bracket once. Future trend as shown in the forecasting and actual data above suggests that PepsiCo will more than likely hit higher brackets in the upcoming years. Currently, the mean is $12,515 for all 5 years, which is well within the 50% marker. The standard deviation is $3,596 from year-to-year. Statisical Analysis with Cost of Goods Sold The table and graph below shows the frequency of PepsiCo falling within specific brackets involving quarterly Cost of Goods Sold from 2007 to 2011. About 25% of PepsiCo’s Cost of Goods Sold is at the $5,001-$6,000 range, which is well between the 20% of $4,001-$5,000 and the 15% of $6,001-$7,000 brackets. This illustrates that the Cost of Goods Sold for Pepsico is not that stable it fluctuates from quarters-to-quarters. The mean of $5,833 falls within that 25% range, with the standard deviation short of that range at $1,752. Taking this and the above data, it is visible that there is positive Gross Profit for PepsiCo. There are more Revenues per quarter to cover up the Cost of the Goods Sold. Statisical Analysis with Selling amp; Administrative Expense The table and graph below shows the frequency of PepsiCo falling within specific brackets involving quarterly Selling amp; Administrative Expense from 2007 to 2011. About 30% of PepsiCo’s Samp;A Expense falls within the $3,001-$4,000 range, with the frequency of hitting it at 6 times. The mean falls outside that range at $4,655, with the standard deviation also outside at $1,534. Market Risks for PepsiCo Inc. There were some problems faced by management highlighted in Pepsi’s 2011 annual report. These issues were discussed as a means to evaluate future performance. First mentioned was that there was concern for consumers changing their preferences and tastes. Pepsi is working on ways to anticipate consumer trends, for instance their â€Å"fun-for-you†, â€Å"good-for-you†, and â€Å"better-for-you† product lines were designed to be responsive to consumer preferences. Another issue highlighted in the report was the economic conditions for many of the countries in which Pepsi operates. Because of the poor economic conditions, consumer’s preferences may shift and Pepsi’s access to capital markets may be impaired. The geographical, political, legal, and regulatory environments could also have an adverse effect on the company’s operations and supply chain. The financial report also discussed how damage to Pepsi’s reputation could have an adverse effect on their product’s demand. As a result Pepsi stressed the importance of maintaining high standards for product quality and for ethical business practices. In order to maintain efficient operations the report also stressed the importance of maintaining a good credit rating, implementing proper information technology infrastructure, maintaining a skilled and reliable workforce, and protecting intellectual property rights. From Pepsi Co’s 2011 financial report we can see there are some items affecting comparability of financial results of company. In year 2011, the company had an additional week—the 53rd week. The additional week increase net revenue of the year by $623 million, and operating profit by $109 million. PepsiCo. Operating Data PepsiCo manage commodity derivatives on behalf of their divisions; include metals, energy, and agricultural products. In 2011, PepsiCo recognized $102 million of mark- to-market net losses on unallocated expenses. In 2010, $91 million of mark- to- market net gains on commodity hedges in unallocated expenses. And in 2009, PepsiCo recognized $274 million of mark- to – market net gains on commodity hedges. These gains and losses recognized in corporate unallocated expenses are subsequently reflected in division results. Therefore, there has no any resulting mark-to – market volatility when divisions realizing the economic effects of the derivative. In 2011, PepsiCo also incurred restructuring charges of $383 million in conjunction with their productivity plan. The plan includes multiple segments; every action in the productivity plan will strengthen the ability to complementary food, snack and beverage business. PepsiCo process operations and leveraging new technologies, heightening the focus on best practice sharing across the globe; consolidating manufacturing, implementing simplified organization structures, wider spans of control and fewer layers of management. The Productivity Plan will provide a source of funding for future buildings and innovation initiatives, and also serve as a financial cushion for potential macroeconomic uncertainty. PepsiCo is expected to enhance their cost- competitiveness by this restructuring plan, the approximately charges will be $910 million. In 2011 results, $383 million was reflected, approximately $425 million will be reflected in 2012, and the balance will be reflected in the 2013 through 2015. These charges will be comprised of around $500 million of severance costs; $325 million of other costs; approximately $85 million for asset impairments costs. The Productivity Plan will be substantially completed by the end of 2012, with incremental productivity initiatives continuing to 2015. Conclusion